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        鋼瓶閥門

        發布日期:2014-06-13 07:22:00   瀏覽:901次

         
         Cylinder Valves
        鋼瓶閥門
        Most compressed gas cylinders require the installation of at least one valve. This valve allows the cylinder to contain gases and allows gas to be filled into or emptied from the cylinder. The cylinder valve is the most vulnerable part of the compressed gas package and requires a thorough understanding in order to maximize its performance. There are three basic valves used in the compressed gas industry. They are the pressure seal valve, the packed valve, and the diaphragm valve. There are several versions or designs within each of the three basic types. This pamphlet will address the more common valves in today’s industry.
        大多數壓縮氣體鋼瓶要求安裝至少一個閥門。這個閥門使鋼瓶可以容納氣體,允許氣體灌裝進或提取出鋼瓶。鋼瓶閥門是壓縮氣體包裝的最脆弱的部分。為了最大程度發揮它的作用,要求徹底地理解閥門。在壓縮氣體工業中有三種基本的閥門。它們是壓力密封閥、襯墊閥和隔膜閥。三個基本類型中地每一個還有幾個版本或設計。本手冊將介紹當代工業中最常用的閥門。
        A working knowledge of cylinder valves can improve processes, save time and money, prevent problems, and improve the safety of your operation. This document must not be used as a guide for valve modification or repair. No modifications to valves are permitted and any repairs shall only be made by or under direction of the supplier.
        鋼瓶閥門的應用知識能夠改善工藝、節約時間和金錢、預防問題和改進你的操作的安全性。本文件不能用作閥門修改或修理的指南。禁止對閥門作任何修改。任何修理只能由供應商或在其指導下進行。
        Basic Valve Rules
        基本的閥門規則
        ALWAYS
        總是
        ? open valves slowly to control pressures urges and heat of compression!
        慢慢打開閥門,以控制壓力負荷和壓縮熱。
        ? use the correct CGA connection for hook-up!
        連接時使用正確的CGA接頭。
        ? inspect the valve for damage and foreign materials before connecting it to your equipment!
        在把閥門連接到你的設備之前,檢查閥門是否有損傷或不相容材料。
        ? ensure when the cylinder is not in use, even when empty, that the valve is in the closed position with the outlet seal in place and the transport cap installed!
        當沒有使用鋼瓶時,甚至當鋼瓶空著的時候,確保閥門處在關閉位置,排氣口密封處在原位,安
        裝了運輸帽。
        ? consult your supplier if you have any questions regarding cylinder valves!
        如果你有任何關于鋼瓶閥門的問題,請教你的供應商。
        ? make packing nut adjustments with the valve outlet depressurized!
        在閥門排氣口減壓時,進行襯墊螺母調節。
        ? restrain cylinders!
        固定鋼瓶!
        When returning any cylinder, ensure that the cylinder valve is properly closed,
        any outlet seals are in place and properly tightened, and the transport cap is correctly installed.
        當任何鋼瓶返還時,確保鋼瓶閥門已經正確關閉,任何排氣口密封都在適當的位置而且已經正確上緊,運輸帽已經正確安裝。
        NEVER
        禁止
        ? tamper with pressure relief devices!
        堵塞減壓裝置!
        ? attempt to tighten or loosen the valve into or out of the cylinder!
        試圖上緊或放松鋼瓶閥門!
        ? use a damaged valve where integrity may have been affected!
        在完整性可能已經受到影響的地方使用損壞的閥門。
        ? continue to use a valve that operates abnormally, i.e., becomes noisy or progressively harder to operate!
        繼續使用運轉不正常的閥門,如有噪聲的或越來越難以操作的!
        ? use an automatic operator, adapter, wrenches, or other tools to obtain a mechanical advantage on hand-wheel-operated valves without consulting your supplier first!
        沒有首先同你的供應商商量就使用自動操作手、接頭、扳手或其它工具,來獲得在手輪操作閥門上的機械便利!
        ? lubricate valves or their connections!
        潤滑閥門或它們的接頭!
        ? drag, lift, or move a cylinder using the valve or the hand wheel as a handle!
        把閥門或手輪作為手柄來拉拽、提舉或移動鋼瓶!
        ? remove packing nuts on packed valves!
        去掉襯墊閥門上的襯墊螺母!
        ? adjust or tamper with retainer or bonnet nuts on diaphragm or pressure seal valves!調整或篡改隔膜閥或壓力密封閥上的固定器或閥帽螺母!
        ? use the cylinder valve to regulate flow or pressure!
        使用鋼瓶閥門來控制流速或壓力!
        ? move cylinders without the transport cap installed!
        沒有安裝運輸帽就移動鋼瓶!
        ? interchange transport caps between cylinders!
        在鋼瓶之間交換運輸帽!
        Pressure Seal Valve
        壓力密封閥
        Products: Inerts, Oxygen, Hydrogen
        產品:惰性氣體,氧,氫
        Operating Principle: The pressure seal valve is a hand wheel-operated valve using a two-piece valve stem. The upper and lower stems interface with either a key arrangement or a slot and blade configuration. The threads are located on the lower stem and the upper stem is free floating. The sealing mechanism for the valve stem is provided by a Teflon packing ring that makes contact with a ridge on the upper stem. The force that provides this contact is a spring located in the hand-wheel. This spring provides an upward force to the upper stem and pulls the stem’s sealing ridge into the packing ring.
        運轉原理:壓力密封閥是使用兩個閥桿的手輪操作閥門。上下閥桿的接合或者采用鑰匙配置或者或者狹縫和刀片的結構。螺紋位于下閥桿上,上閥桿是自由浮動的。閥桿的密封結構由一個同上閥桿的凸起接觸的特氟綸墊圈提供。提供這種接觸的力是手輪里的彈簧。彈簧提供一個向上的力給上閥桿,把閥桿的密封凸起推進墊圈。
        Identifying Features
        鑒別特征
        1. Spring in hand wheel can be detected by wiggling hand wheel. If a spring is present, the hand wheel will pivot on the spring.
        通過扭動手輪可以察覺到手輪里的彈簧。如果有彈簧,手輪的樞軸會裝在彈簧上。
        2. The valve has a non-rising hand-wheel. The hand wheel is always in the same position relative to the valve body regardless of whether the valve is in the open or closed position.
        閥門有一個不能上升的手輪。不管閥門是在開啟或是關閉位置,手輪總是處在相對于閥體的同樣的位置。
        Recommended Opening Procedure: Air Products recommends that pressure seal valves be used in the fully open or back seated position. Opening the valve fully causes the lower stem to ride upward on its threads until it contacts the upper stem and mechanically drives the upper stems seal ridge into the packing ring. This improves the seal around the stem and helps to prevent packing leaks. Valves in the back seated position can be mistaken as closed by inexperienced or untrained operators. When an operator checks a valve to insure its position, he should always check by attempting to close the valve, never by trying to open the valve. If the valve was back seated using substantial effort, it is possible that the operator could think the valve is closed, when in fact it is fully open. Operators must be trained to use pressure readings or an equally reliable indicator to insure the cylinder valve is closed or open.
        推薦的開啟程序:Air Products推薦把壓力密封閥用在充分開啟或反向固定的位置。閥門的完全開啟使得下閥桿沿著螺紋上升,直到它物理上接觸到上閥桿,機械驅動上閥桿密封凸起進入墊圈。這改善了閥桿附近的密封,有助于防止襯墊泄漏。沒有經驗或未經訓練的操作人員會誤認為
        反向固定位置的閥門是關閉的。當操作人員檢查閥門以確保其位置時,他應該總是通過試圖關閉閥門,而不是試圖開啟閥門來檢查。當事實上閥門是完全開啟的時候,如果經過努力閥門還是不動的話,有可能操作人員認為閥門是關閉的。必須訓練操作人員,使他們學會通過使用壓力表或同樣可靠的指示器來確定鋼瓶閥門是關閉或是開啟。
        Recommended Closing Procedure: Close the cylinder valve tightly using a gloved hand. Always wearing gloves when operating cylinder valves. NEVER use wrenches or other persuaders to operate the valve.
        推薦的關閉程序:用戴手套的手緊緊地關閉閥門。推薦操作鋼瓶閥門時總是戴手套。禁止用扳手或其它強制性的工具來操作閥門。
        Valve Advantages: The pressure seal valve is extremely reliable, very strong (used at pressures up to 6000 psig), economical, and user friendly.
        閥門的優點:壓力密封閥是非??煽?、非常堅固(可用于高達6000 psig的壓力)、經濟和易于使用的。
        Valve Disadvantages: The valve is prone to leakage around the stem, especially in-board leakage when a vacuum is pulled on the valve outlet. Back seating helps minimize outboard leakage when the valve is in the open position. The threads on the lower valve stem are in the wetted gas stream. These threads are lubricated and these lubricants can be an unwanted contaminant in high purity applications.
        閥門的缺點:當閥門排氣口處是真空時,閥門在閥桿附近容易泄漏,特別是內部泄漏。當閥門處在開啟位置時,反向固定有助于將外部泄漏減到最小。下閥桿上的螺紋是處在潮濕氣流中的。這些螺紋被潤滑了,而且這些潤滑劑在高純度應用中可能是有害的污染物。
        Comments: This is a very reliable valve for non-corrosive and high purity products. However, the design makes this valve inappropriate for corrosives and ultrahigh-purity products.
        評論:對于非腐蝕性和高純度產品,這是一種非??煽康拈y門。但是,它的設計使得它不適合用于腐蝕物和超高純度產品。
        WARNING: Improper use of cylinder valves may result in serious injury!
        警告:不正確使用鋼瓶閥門會導致嚴重傷害!
        The Wrench-Operated Packed Valve
        扳手型襯墊閥
        Products: Corrosives and Reactive Gases
        產品:腐蝕物和活潑氣體
        Operating Principle: The wrench-operated valve is a packed valve with a one piece stem. The seat to stem seal is a metal to metal seal. The manufacturer’s minimum recommended closing torque is35 ft-lbs. This is much more than can be applied with hand force; therefore, the valve requires a wrench to provide sufficient closing force. The stem seal is accomplished by compressing a large ring of Teflon between the
        valve body and packing nut which forces the Teflon to grip the stem.
        運轉原理:扳手型襯墊閥是有一個閥桿的襯墊閥門。閥座到閥桿的密封是一個金屬到金屬的密封。制造商的最小推薦關閉轉矩是35 ft-lbs。這遠遠超過了手所能施加的力;因此,閥門要求一個扳手來提供足夠的關閉力量。閥桿密封是這樣實現的:把一個大特氟綸環壓在閥體和襯墊螺母之間,襯墊螺母迫使特氟綸緊抓住閥桿。
        Identifying Features
        鑒別特征
        1. The valve does not have a hand-wheel. The top of the stem is machined square to accommodate a wrench.
        閥門沒有手輪。閥桿頂部加工成方形,以容納扳手。
        2. The top of the valve has a large, internally-threaded nut screwed onto the body, where the valve stem exits. This is the packing nut.
        閥門頂部有一個擰進閥桿處閥體的內螺紋大螺母。這是襯墊螺母。
        Recommended Opening Procedure: The wrench-operated valve has a very large flow capacity. It is not necessary to open this valve to the full open position to provide full flow to the process. Opening this valve fully poses two serious problems. The first problem is safety-related. In many applications, cylinders with these valves are used in tight quarters (e.g., gas cabinets) or behind barricades. These space constraints often prohibit the stem from being fully rotated when operating the valve. This valve requires approximately three full turns from full open to full close. In the case of an emergency, it can take 15 to 30 seconds to close the valve, depending on space and operator stress. However, if the valve is opened to the recommended 1 /4 to 1 /2turn, the valve can be quickly closed with minimal operator exposure. The second benefit of only opening the valve the recommended 1 /4 to 1 /2 turn is the protection of the upper section of threads.
        推薦的開啟程序:扳手型閥門流量非常大。必須把閥門開到完全開啟的位置,以提供完全的流通。完全開啟閥門引起兩個嚴重問題。第一個問題同安全有關。在許多應用中,使用這種閥門的鋼瓶用在狹窄空間(如氣體室)或隔板后面。這些空間限制經常禁止操作閥門時閥桿充分旋轉。這種閥門從完全開啟到完全關閉需要大約三圈。在緊急情況下,根據空間和操作人員的壓力,關閉閥門需要15到30秒。但是,如果閥門開啟到推薦的1 /4到1 /2圈,閥門就可以迅速關閉,操作人員的暴露也減少到最小。僅僅開啟閥門到推薦的1 /4到1 /2圈的第二個好處是保護了螺紋的上面部分。
        The threads are in the wetted gas stream and, due to the corrosive nature of many of the products where these valves are used, the threads can become jammed with corrosion by-products. If the valve is opened to the recommended 1 /4 to 1 /2 turn and the threads become jammed, the upper threads usually remain clear. This allows the operator to further open the valve and to free the threads. The proper operation of this valve requires the use of the proper wrench. Recommends using the square stem valve wrench, commodity code E99-P-38WRENCH to operate these valves (except on highly reactive gases such as fluorine, ClF3, etc.). This wrench
        has a square hole sized to fit the stem and an open-end wrench on opposite end that fits the packing nut. The recommended opening procedure for this valve is as follows:
        螺紋處在潮濕氣流中,同時由于使用閥門的地方的許多產品的腐蝕性,螺紋可能被腐蝕產生的副產品堵塞。如果閥門開啟到推薦的1 /4到1 /2圈,同時螺紋被堵塞,上螺紋通常保持著清潔。這就允許操作人員進一步開啟閥門和松開螺紋。這種閥門的正確操作要求使用正確的扳手。推薦使用商品代碼為E99-P-38WRENCH方形桿閥扳手來操作這些閥門(除了對于非?;顫姎怏w,如氟、ClF3等)。這種扳手有一個尺寸同閥桿配合的方孔,另一端有一個同襯墊螺母配合的開口扳手。推薦的這種閥門的開啟程序如下:
        1. connect cylinder to system
        把鋼瓶連接到系統上
        2. snug packing nut with wrench (35 ft-lbs)
        用扳手擰緊襯墊螺母(35 ft-lbs)
        3. place wrench on stem and slap valve open by striking the wrench with the palm of the hand
        把扳手放在閥桿上,通過用手掌擊打扳手把閥門拍開。
        4. continue opening the valve until it is1 /4 to 1 /2 turn open.
        繼續把閥門開啟到1 /4到1 /2圈。
        Where possible, leave the wrench on the valve so a quick closing of the valve can be made in the event of an emergency.
        在可能的地方,把扳手留在閥門上,以便在緊急情況下可以迅速的關閉閥門。
        Recommended Closing Procedure: Using an appropriate wrench, tighten the stem by pulling the wrench to the closed position. When the valve is closed as tight as the wrench can be pulled, give the wrench a closing slap with the gloved palm of the hand. The minimum closing torque for this valve is 35 ft-lbs. but it is not uncommon for some valves to require as much as 60 to 80 ft-lbs. to fully seal.
        推薦的關閉程序:使用一個合適的扳手,通過把扳手推到關閉位置擰緊閥桿。當閥門關閉到扳手能夠擰到的最緊程度時,用戴手套的手掌朝擰緊的方向拍一下扳手。這種閥門的最小關閉轉矩是35 ft-lbs,也有一些閥門要求大到60到80 ft-lbs的轉矩來完全密封。
        Valve Advantages: The valve is extremely rugged and its one piece stem provides positive operation. This strength and the metal sealing allow this valve to be used in the most severe services. The simple design makes this valve very reliable.
        閥門的優點:閥門非常結實,它的單閥桿提供了確定的操作。這種強度和金屬密封使這種閥門可以用于最嚴格的應用中。簡單的設計使閥門非??煽?。
        Valve Disadvantages: The nature of the products for which this valve is used are the main cause of problems with this valve. Corrosion products often deposit at the
        valve seat, preventing a seal, or they collect in the threads, making operation difficult or impossible. As the seat wears, increasing closing torques are required to seal the valve. The packing is also susceptible to both inboard and outboard leakage. This is caused by the same property that makes Teflon such an ideal packing: its ability to flow. When the Teflon is squeezed, it responds by “cold flowing.” This means the Teflon pushes into every void in an effort to relieve the pressure. When this happens, a packing leak often develops. The packing should be checked frequently for leaks. The leaks can usually be fixed by depressurizing the valve outlet and retorquing the packing nut. These weak points make this valve a poor choice for cylinders used in critical applications where cleanliness and ultra-high leak integrity are crucial.
        閥門的缺點:應用這種閥門的產品的本質是這種閥門出現問題的主要原因。腐蝕性產品經常堆積在閥座上,妨礙了密封,或者積累在螺紋里,造成操作困難或無法操作。在閥座磨損后,要密封閥門就要求增加關閉轉矩。密封環也容易受到內部和外部泄漏的影響。這是由使得特氟綸成為這樣一種理想的襯墊的性質:流動性造成的。當特氟綸受到擠壓時,它的反應是“冷變形”。這意味著特氟綸要擠進每一寸空間以釋放壓力。當這種情況發生時,經常發展為襯墊的泄漏。應該經常檢查密封是否泄漏。通??梢酝ㄟ^對閥門排氣口減壓和重新調整襯墊螺母來阻止泄漏。
        Comments: A simple preventative maintenance program and good operating procedures can address and limit the disadvantages of this valve. Preventative maintenance in the form of weekly cycling to keep the threads clear and frequent checking of the packing for leaks are very beneficial. Good procedures for cylinder and proper operation are also key in minimizing problems with this valve. The right wrench for valve operation also makes the operator’s job easier and safer. Some wrench-operated valves, specifically those used in ammonia and amines service, have packing nuts with notches machined into the flats. This indicates that the nut has left handed threads. Make sure you tighten these nuts in the counter-clockwise direction.
        評論:一個簡單的預防性的維護程序和良好的操作程序能夠限制這種閥門的缺點。每周保持螺紋清潔和經常檢查襯墊是否泄漏的形式的預防性維護是非常有益的。鋼瓶更換和正確操作的良好程序在最大程度減少這種閥門的問題方面也是很關鍵的。用于閥門操作的正確的扳手也會使操作者的工作更加容易和安全。一些扳手型閥門,特別是那些用于氨和胺設施的扳手型閥門的襯墊螺母帶有加工進平面的凹槽。這說明螺母帶有左手螺紋。確定沿反時針方向緊固螺母。
        WARNING:Improper use of cylinder valves may result in serious injury!
        警告:不正確使用鋼瓶閥門會導致嚴重傷害!
        The Hand wheel-Operated Packed Valve
        手輪型襯墊閥
        Products: Corrosives and Reactive Gases
        產品:腐蝕物和活潑氣體
        Operating Principle: The hand wheel-operated packed valve can use metal to metal seats like the wrench-operated valve or elastomeric seats like the pressure seal valve. Unlike the wrench-operated valve, the sealing mechanism in this valve is
        designed to seal with only hand force. The packing is typically a filled Teflon. The packing is usually smaller and better contained than the packing in the wrench-operated valve. This helps to eliminate the hand wheel-operated packing leak problem associated with the wrench-operated valve. The packed valves used by Air Products employ a two- or three-piece stem in which the lower stem or spindle connects to the upper stem via a slip joint. In these valves the stem tip seals against the seat without rotating. This reduces some of the wear and particle generation, as compared to the wrench-operated design. This sealing motion and a considerable reduction in seat size allow this valve to be operated using hand torque. The packing nut of this valve is secured by a lock nut with left-handed threads which prevents accidental loosening of the packing nut.
        操作原理:手輪型襯墊閥可以象扳手型閥門那樣使用金屬到金屬閥座,或者象壓力密封閥那樣使用人造橡膠閥座。同扳手型閥門不一樣,這種閥門的密封機制設計得僅用手的力量來密封。襯墊典型是填充特氟綸。密封環通常比扳手型閥門的密封環小和容納得更好。這有助于排除手輪型密封的泄漏問題,而扳手型閥門具有這個問題。Air Products使用的密封閥采用兩個或三個閥桿。下閥桿或軸通過伸縮接頭同上閥桿連接在一起。在這些閥門里,閥桿尖端沒有旋轉地同閥座密封在一起。同扳手型設計相比,這減少了磨損和顆粒的產生。這種密封動作和閥座尺寸的相當大的減小使得可以用手的轉矩來操作閥門。通過一個鎖定螺母來固定密封螺母。鎖定螺母帶有左手螺紋,可以防止密封螺母的意外松動。
        Identifying Features
        鑒別特征
        1. The valve is equipped with a hand-wheel. The hand wheel does not hold a spring and does not wiggle like the hand wheel of a pressure seal valve.
        閥門配有手輪。手輪內沒有裝彈簧,不會象壓力密封閥的手輪那樣扭動。
        2. The stem rises when the hand wheel is turned to the open position.
        當手輪轉動到開啟位置時,閥桿上升。
        3. Beneath the hand wheel are two nuts attached to the valve body. The upper set of wrench flats belong to the packing nut, which is threaded into the valve body. The lower set of wrench flats belong to the locking nut. Note that these flats have notches machined into them. This indicates the locking nut has left-handed threads.在手輪下面是兩個附在閥體上的螺母。扳手面上面的那個屬于襯墊螺母,它是通過螺紋旋進閥體的。扳手面下面的那個屬于鎖定螺母。注意這些平面帶有加工進平面的凹槽。這說明鎖定螺母帶有左手螺紋。
        Recommended Opening Procedure: The slip joint interface of the upper and lower stems creates a free play of about 1 /2 turn with this valve. When opening, the hand wheel will give an initial resistance, then suddenly turnabout 1 /2 turn with little resistance. At this point the valve is still closed. When the hand wheel hits resistance again this is the sealing force at the seat. The hand wheel must be turned at least another 1 /2 turn, or a full turn from initial start, for the valve to be opened. This hand wheel rotates three full turns from closed to fully open. The flow capacity of
        this valve is much smaller than that of the wrench operated valve, therefore it may be desirable to open this valve fully. DO NOT backseat this valve. Open the valve fully then rotate the hand wheel clockwise about 1 /2 turn. As when initially opening the valve, no resistance will be encountered for about 1 /2 turn. This is again the free play of the stem assembly. When closing resistance is encountered, stop. This position will provide maximum flow and allow the quickest closing in the event of an emergency. It will also eliminate the chance of an opened valve being mistaken for a closed valve.
        推薦的開啟程序:上下閥桿的伸縮接頭接觸面使這種閥門可以有大約1 /2圈的自由運動。開啟的時候,手輪會引起一個最初的阻力,接著在這個小阻力下突然旋轉大約1 /2圈。在該點閥門仍然是關閉的。當手輪再次碰到阻力的時候,這是閥座上的密封力。在最初啟動時,要打開閥門,手輪必須再旋轉至少1 /2圈或一整圈。這種閥門的流量比扳手型閥門的流量小得多,因此有必要徹底打開閥門。禁止反向固定閥門。徹底打開閥門,接著順時針旋轉手輪1 /2圈。象最初開啟閥門時一樣,大約1 /2圈時不會遇到阻力。這又是閥桿裝置的自由運動。當遇到關閉阻力時,停止旋轉。這個位置將提供最大的流量,并允許在緊急情況下最快地關閉閥門。它還排除了把開啟的閥門誤認為關閉的閥門的可能性。
        Recommended Closing Procedure: Close the cylinder valve tightly using a gloved hand. Air Products recommends always wearing gloves when operating cylinder valves. NEVER use wrenches or other persuaders to operate the valve.
        推薦的關閉程序:用戴手套的手緊緊地關閉鋼瓶閥門。Air Products推薦操作鋼瓶閥門時總是戴手套。禁止用扳手或其它強制性的工具來操作閥門。
        Valve Advantages: The valve can be used in many of the same services as the wrench-operated valve. No threads or lubricants are in the wetted gas stem. The valve effectively seals at higher pressures with less closing torque than the wrench-operated design. The packing design provides greater seal integrity than other packed valves. The valve is hand operated, thereby eliminating the need for special wrenches. The non-rotating lower stem eliminates much of the particle generation and wear associated with the wrench-operated packed valves.
        閥門的優點:該閥門可以用于許多使用扳手型閥門的應用中。在接觸潮濕氣體的閥桿上沒有螺紋或潤滑劑。同扳手型設計相比,這種閥門可以在更高的壓力下使用更小的轉矩有效地密封。這種襯墊設計提供了比其它密封閥門更大的密封完整性。閥門是手動的,因而不需要特殊的扳手。不旋轉的下閥桿很大程度上排除了顆粒產生和磨損問題,而扳手型襯墊閥門具有這個問題。
        Valve Disadvantages: Although this valve has better particle generation characteristics and leak integrity than other packed valves, diaphragm valves are superior to these valves in these attributes. The stem design makes this a very rapid opening valve and it should not be used in services where gas velocity and adiabatic heat of compression are a concern (such as in oxidizer service). The dead band in the stem prohibits the use of any presently available separate pneumatic openers.
        閥門的缺點:盡管同其它襯墊閥門相比這種閥門具有更好的顆粒產生特性和泄漏完整性,但在這些特性方面,膜閥比這些閥門更好。閥桿設計使它成為一種可以迅速開啟的閥門,但它不能用于關心氣體速度和壓縮隔熱的場合(如氧化劑設施)。閥桿的無控制作用區禁止任何現有的分離的
        氣動開啟工具的使用。
        Comments: This valve is typically used to replace the wrench-operated valve in non-ultrahigh integrity applications.
        評論:這種閥門典型用于在非超高純度應用中代替扳手型閥門。
        WARNING:Improper use of cylinder valves may result in serious injury!
        警告:不正確使用鋼瓶閥門會導致嚴重傷害!
        The Spring-Loaded Diaphragm Valve (First Generation)
        彈簧隔膜閥(第一代)
        Products: Highly Toxic Gases, High-Purity Gases, Rare Gases and Pyrophoric Gases
        產品:劇毒氣體,高純度氣體,稀有氣體和自燃氣體
        Operating Principle: The diaphragm valve is a handwheel-operated valve, utilizing a two-piece stem separated by non perforated diaphragms. These diaphragms prevent leakage along the valve stem. The lower stem is encased in a spring which forces the stem away from the seat when the valve is opened. The upper stem is threaded into the diaphragm retainer nut. When the handwheel is rotated to the closed position the upper stem pushes on the diaphragms, which deflect downward, forcing the lower stem against the valve seat. When the handwheel is rotated toward the open position the upper stem is moved away from the diaphragms allowing the spring to push the lower stem away from the seat. The replacement of elastomeric seals with metal diaphragms gives this valve superior leak integrity to the atmosphere.
        運轉原理:膜板閥是一種手輪型閥門,它采用兩個由非穿孔橫膈膜隔開的閥桿。這些橫膈膜防止了沿著閥桿的泄漏。下閥桿包裹在一個彈簧內部,當閥門開啟時,彈簧迫使閥桿離開閥座。上閥桿通過絲口旋在橫膈膜止動螺母里。當手輪旋轉到關閉位置,上閥桿推動橫膈膜,橫膈膜下垂,迫使下閥桿接觸閥座。當手輪象開啟位置旋轉時,上閥桿離開橫膈膜,彈簧推動下閥桿離開閥座。用金屬橫膈膜代替人造橡膠密封給予了這種閥門更好的對空氣的泄漏完整性。
        Identifying Features:
        鑒別特征:
        1. The valve is equipped with a hand-wheel. The handwheel does not house a spring and does not wiggle or pivot.
        閥門配有手輪。手輪內沒有裝彈簧,不會扭動或轉動。
        2. The stem rises and lowers as the valve is opened and closed.
        當閥門開啟或關閉時,閥桿上升或下降。
        3. Beneath the handwheel is a hexheaded externally-threaded diaphragm-retaining nut.
        手輪下面是一個六角形外螺紋橫膈膜止動螺母。
        Recommended Opening Procedure: The diaphragm valve handwheel rotates about
        1 1 /4 turns from fully open to closed. When opening a diaphragm valve, you will feel resistance for approximately one turn, at which point most or all resistance on the handwheel will disappear. At this point the upper stem has lost contact with the diaphragms. The valve should be opened to this point but not back seated. When the handwheel is free from resistance, the valve will provide maximum flow but will not be mistaken for a closed valve because the handwheel will turn freely.
        推薦的開啟程序:從徹底打開到關閉,隔膜閥手輪旋轉大約1 1 /4圈。當開啟隔膜閥的時候,在大約一圈中,你會感覺到阻力,到了一圈時,大部分或所有阻力都會消失。在此時,上閥桿已經失去了同橫膈膜的接觸。閥門應該開啟到這一點,但不能反向固定。當手輪沒有阻力的時候,閥門將提供最大的流量,但因為手輪可以自由旋轉,不會被誤認為是關閉的閥門。
        Recommended Closing Procedure: The diaphragm valve can be difficult to close. When the valve is open, full cylinder pressure is exerted on the diaphragms. The diaphragms have a surface area of about one square inch. The pressure on this large surface area makes it difficult to push the diaphragms down. When closing the valve against cylinder pressure, about 60% of the closing force goes toward overcoming the gas pressure, while only 40% of the force is transmitted to the seat. Therefore, when a pressurized diaphragm valve is closed to the recommended 10 ft-lbs. and the valve outlet is depressurized, the closing force on the seat is only 4 ft-lbs. Many diaphragm valves are either weeping through at this point or are just barely closed. Because of this effect, it is necessary to use a “double close procedure” on these valves. This procedure requires the operator to close the valve as tightly as possible by hand (gloved hands are recommended), to vent the pressure in the valve outlet, and then to re-tighten the valve immediately. This is commonly referred to as double closing. NEVER use wrenches or other persuaders to operate the valve. Use of these cheaters can permanently damage the valve components.
        推薦的關閉程序:隔膜閥的關閉是比較困難的。當閥門開啟的時候,全部的鋼瓶壓力都施加在橫膈膜上。橫膈膜的表面積大約是1平方英寸。這樣大面積上的壓力使得向下推動橫膈膜是很困難的。當在鋼瓶壓力下關閉閥門時,關閉力量的大約60%向下克服氣體壓力,而只有40%的力傳遞到閥座。因此,當使用推薦的10 ft-lbs力來關閉受壓隔膜閥且閥門排氣口壓力下降時,在閥座上的關閉力量只有4 ft-lbs。許多隔膜閥在這一點或者泄漏,或者根本就關不上。由于這種作用,在這些閥門上有必要使用一個“二次關閉程序”。這個程序要求操作者用手(推薦用戴手套的手)盡可能緊地關閉閥門,排出閥門排氣口的壓力,接著馬上重新關緊閥門。這一般稱為二次關閉。禁止使用扳手或其它強制性工具來操作閥門。使用這些工具會永久性地損壞閥門組件。
        Valve Advantages: The replacement of elastomeric packings by metal diaphragms gives this valve superior leak integrity at the top works of the valve and stem. This is why shipping regulations require diaphragm valves on most poisonous gas cylinders. The valve shave no threads or lubricants in the gas stream to generate particles or contaminate the gas.
        閥門的優點:用金屬橫膈膜代替人造橡膠襯墊在閥門和閥桿的頂部機件處給予了這種閥門出眾的泄漏完整性。這正是為什么運輸規范要求在大多數有毒氣體鋼瓶上使用隔膜閥的原因。閥門沒有螺紋或潤滑劑處在氣流中,不會產生顆?;蛭廴練怏w。
        Valve Disadvantages: The valve is difficult to close and requires the operator to double close the valve. Because of this difficulty in closing, operators commonly use wrenches and other persuaders on the valves. To compound this problem the valves do not withstand this abusive treatment to any great extent. The diaphragms may become permanently inverted and the elastomeric stem tip can cold flow down the throat of the valve. This plug of extruded elastomer can be lodged in the throat so tightly that even 2000 psig of pressure will not dislodge it. This valve does not function well in corrosive service. Because of its design, materials of construction, and surface finish, the valve is very prone to corrosion. What usually happens is that the spring corrodes to the stem and valve body and becomes immovable. This can happen in both the open and closed positions. The valve is also prone to open when exposed to vibration and shock unless it is properly closed and secured.
        閥門的缺點:閥門難以關閉,要求操作者二次關閉閥門。由于關閉困難,操作者一般都在閥門上使用扳手和其它強制性工具。使這個問題復雜化的是閥門不能承受任何程度的虐待。橫膈膜會永久性的翻轉,人造橡膠閥桿尖端會冷變形到閥門的喉管處。突出的人造橡膠會緊緊的堵在喉管處,即使2000 psig的壓力也不能把它移走。這種閥門在腐蝕性設施中無法正常工作。由于它的設計、建材和表面加工,閥門很容易腐蝕。通常發生的是彈簧同閥桿和閥體腐蝕在一起,變得無法移動。在開啟和關閉位置都可能發生這種情況。當暴露于震動和沖擊時,除非閥門已經正確關閉和固定,否則它還很容易打開。
        Comments: When using diaphragm valves or any valve with a soft seat material in a service where corrosion products can be produced, it is very important to take precautions to prevent those reactions. Corrosion products formed by these reactions can prevent normal valve operation and can become embedded in the elastomeric stem tip, preventing the valve from making a complete seal. When disconnecting cylinders with diaphragm valves, it is most important to double close the valve and to properly install the outlet seal. Failure to use this procedure can result in release of the product into the environment.
        評論:當在可能產生腐蝕產物的設施處使用隔膜閥或任何帶有軟閥座材料的閥門時,采取防范措施來防止那些反應是非常重要的。這些反應產生的腐蝕產物會阻止正常的閥門運轉,深入到人造橡膠閥桿頂端,造成閥門不能完全密封。當切斷鋼瓶和隔膜閥的連接時,兩次關閉閥門和正確安裝排氣口密封是最重要的。不采用這個程序會導致產品泄漏入環境。
        WARNING: Improper use of cylinder valves may result in serious injury!
        警告:不正確使用鋼瓶閥門會導致嚴重傷害!
        The Spring-Loaded Diaphragm Valve(Second Generation)
        彈簧隔膜閥(第二代)
        Products: All Products except Fluorine, High Concentration Fluorine Mixtures (> 20%), and Strongly Oxidizing Fluorine Derivatives
        產品:除了氟、高濃度氟混合物(> 20%)和強氧化氟衍生物以外的所有產品
        Operating Principle, Identifying Features, Recommended Opening, and Closing Procedures:
        運轉原理,鑒別特征,推薦的開啟和關閉程序:
        Identical to those of the First Generation Diaphragm Valve.
        與第一代隔膜閥相同
        Valve Advantages: Along with the advantages of the earlier diaphragm design, the second generation valves incorporate features which provide additional benefits and flexibility. These valves are referred to as second generation diaphragm valves because basic changes in the valve design have been incorporated to resolve the deficiencies of the earlier diaphragm valves. These changes include design of the wetted gas house to provide better functioning, improved materials of construction, and improved surface finishes. These changes enable this generation to be used successfully in corrosive service. The valve’s design prevents diaphragm inversion. The elastomeric stem tips are re-designed, usually in a “donut” configuration, to prevent the plugging extrusion problems of the earlier design. These changes also make this generation of valves cleaner from a standpoint of particle generation.
        閥門的優點:除了較早的橫膈膜設計的優點以外,第二代閥門還具備了提供另外的好處和適應性的特點。因為閥門設計產生了基本的變化,以克服較早的隔膜閥的缺點,這些閥門被稱為第二代隔膜閥。這些變化包括設計潮濕氣體室以更好地發揮功能、改進的建材和改進的表面加工。這些變化使得這一代隔膜閥可以成功地應用于腐蝕物設施。閥門的設計防止了橫膈膜的倒置。重新設計了人造橡膠閥桿頂端,通常是“油炸圈餅”的構造,防止了較早的設計的阻塞性突起的問題。從顆粒產生的觀點來看,這些變化還使這一代閥門成為了清潔器。
        Valve Disadvantages: Although the improvements to this generation of valves eliminate the more serious problems of damage from abusive closing, they are not totally immune to abuse. These valves will also sustain damage when excessively torqued. This damage could include stem breakage or internal damage which would preclude ongoing use. These valves, like the earlier diaphragm valve designs, still include relatively large volume interiors with complex surfaces and are not fully optimized for cleanliness or purgability.
        閥門的缺點:盡管對這一代閥門的改進排除了由于粗暴關閉造成的損害問題中比較嚴重的問題,但它們還不能完全防止機械損傷。當過分扭轉時,這些閥門還是會受到損傷。這種損傷可能包括閥桿斷裂或阻止繼續使用的內部損傷。象較早的隔膜閥設計一樣,這些閥門仍然包含相對容積較大的內部和復雜的表面,在清潔和凈化方面也還沒有充分優化。
        Comments: When working with these valves it is very important to use good cylinder change out procedures. These procedures must incorporate adequate purge and evacuation times to allow the valve interior to be properly cleaned. This problem becomes more critical if the valve is equipped with a restrictive flow orifice. Rapid purge and evacuation cycles are often ineffective in the removal of contaminants from these valves.
        評論:當與這些閥門一起工作時,使用良好的鋼瓶更換程序是非常重要的。這些程序必須包括充分的凈化和抽空時間,以允許適當清潔閥門內部。如果閥門配備有限制流速孔,這個問題就變得更加關鍵。過快的凈化和抽空周期對于這些閥門內污染物的排除通常是無效的。
        WARNING: Improper use of cylinder valves may result in serious injury!
        警告:不正確使用鋼瓶閥門會導致嚴重傷害!
        The Tied-Diaphragm Valve (Third Generation)
        束縛隔膜閥(第三代)
        Products: Same as Second Generation Spring-Loaded Diaphragm Valve
        產品:同第二代彈簧隔膜閥相同
        Operating Principle: The tied-diaphragm valve is a handwheel-operated valve, utilizing a two-piece stem connected through the diaphragms. The metal diaphragms act as the seal at the top of the valve. The primary improvement in this generation of valves is the elimination of the spring used to open the valve. The lower stem is physically pulled away from the seat instead of being lifted away by the spring. This is accomplished by piercing the diaphragms and mechanically connecting the upper and lower stems. The point of penetration through the diaphragms is sealed by E-beam welding. When the upper stem rides up and down on its threads it now moves the lower stem by a mechanical connection.
        運轉原理:束縛隔膜閥是采用通過橫膈膜連接的兩個閥桿的手輪型閥門。金屬橫膈膜在閥門的頂部作為密封。這一代閥門的主要的改進是取消了用于開啟閥門的彈簧。下閥桿是被從閥座上物理地推開,而不是被彈簧舉起來。這是通過穿透橫膈膜,把上下閥桿機械地連接在一起來實現的。通過橫膈膜的穿透點用電子束焊接來密封。當上閥桿沿著它的螺紋上下運動時,通過機械連接帶著下閥桿一起運動。
        Identifying Features:
        鑒別特征:
        1. The valve is equipped with a hand-wheel. The handwheel does not house a spring and does not wiggle or pivot.
        閥門配有手輪。手輪內沒有裝彈簧,不會扭動或轉動。
        2. The stem rises and lowers as the valve is opened and closed.
        當閥門開啟或關閉時,閥桿上升或下降。
        3. Beneath the handwheel is one set of wrench flats on a nut threaded into the valve body. This is the diaphragm-retaining nut.
        在手輪下面,在一個旋進閥體的螺母上面是一套扳手面。這是橫膈膜止動螺母。
        4. The valve has a threaded leak check port located on the side of the valve. This allows the diaphragms to be leak checked.
        在閥門的側面有一個車有螺紋的泄漏檢查口??梢詫M膈膜檢漏
        Recommended Opening Procedure: The diaphragm valve handwheel travels about 3 /4 turn from fully open to closed. Because the stems have a mechanical connection, tied-diaphragm valve shave a different feel than spring-loaded diaphragm valves. The upper stem is always attached to the diaphragms so there is no “free-spinning” point. The valve should be opened fully but not backseated. This will provide
        maximum flow but will not be mistaken for a closed valve because it is easily moved.
        推薦的開啟程序:從完全開啟到關閉,隔膜閥手輪旋轉大約3 /4圈。因為兩個閥桿有機械連接,束縛隔膜閥與彈簧隔膜閥的操作感覺不一樣。上閥桿總是和橫膈膜連在一起,所以沒有“自由旋轉”點。閥門應該完全開啟,但不能反向固定。這將提供最大的流量,但不會被誤認為是關閉的閥門,因為可以很容易地移動它。
        Recommended Closing Procedure: This new design does not solve the old difficulty in closing because the diaphragms are still affected by gas pressure. The diaphragm valve may be difficult to close. The reason for this difficulty lies in the design. When the valve is open, full cylinder pressure is exerted on the diaphragms. The diaphragms have a surface area of about one square inch. The pressure on this large surface area makes it difficult to push the diaphragms down. When closing the valve against cylinder pressure, about 60%of the closing force goes toward pushing the diaphragms down, while only 40% of the force is transmitted to the seat. Therefore, when a pressurized diaphragm valve is closed to the recommended 10 ft-lbs. and the valve outlet is depressurized, the closing force on the seat is only 4 ft-lbs. Most diaphragm valves are either weeping through at this point or are just barely closed. Because of this phenomenon, it is necessary to use a “double close” procedure on these valves. This procedure requires the operator to close the valve as tightly as possible by hand (gloved hands are recommended), then vent the pressure in the valve outlet and reclose the valve immediately. This is commonly referred to as double closing. NEVER use wrenches or other persuaders to operate the valve. Use of these cheaters can permanently damage the valve internals.
        推薦的關閉程序:因為橫膈膜仍然受到氣體壓力的影響,這種新設計沒有解決在關閉上的老困難。隔膜閥還是難以關閉。該困難的原因在于設計。當閥門開啟時,全部的鋼瓶壓力施加在橫膈膜上。橫膈膜的表面積大約是1平方英寸。這樣大面積上的壓力使得向下推動橫膈膜是很困難的。當在鋼瓶壓力下關閉閥門時,關閉力量的大約60%向下克服氣體壓力,而只有40%的力傳遞到閥座。因此,當使用推薦的10 ft-lbs力來關閉受壓隔膜閥且閥門排氣口壓力下降時,在閥座上的關閉力量只有4 ft-lbs。許多隔膜閥在這一點或者泄漏,或者根本就關不上。由于這種作用,在這些閥門上有必要使用一個“二次關閉程序”。這個程序要求操作者用手(推薦用戴手套的手)盡可能緊的關閉閥門,排出閥門排氣口的壓力,接著馬上重新關緊閥門。這一般稱為二次關閉。禁止使用扳手或其它強制性工具來操作閥門。使用這些工具會永久性地損壞閥門內部零件。
        Valve Advantages: Along with the advantages of the spring-loaded diaphragm valves, tied-diaphragm valves incorporate features which provide additional benefits. A major benefit of the tied-diaphragm design is that it has a much lower internal volume, less surface area, and less complex surfaces in the gas path than other designs. These attributes make the tied diaphragm valve more appropriate and successful for corrosive gas service. In all services, the tied-diaphragm valve is the most easily purged, particle-free valve design now in use. Anti-extrusion stem tips and anti-inversion diaphragm configurations are incorporated in this design, eliminating those potential problems.
        閥門的優點:除了彈簧膈膜閥的優點以外,束縛隔膜閥還具備了提供另外的好處的特點。束縛橫膈膜設計的一個重大好處是它比其它設計具有更小的內部體積、更小的表面積和在氣體路徑上的
        更簡單的表面。這些特點使得束縛隔膜閥可以更適合和更成功地應用于腐蝕性氣體設施。在所有應用中,束縛隔膜閥是現在正在使用的最容易凈化的無顆粒閥門設計。這種設計里包含了抗突起的閥桿頂端和抗倒置橫膈膜結構,排除了那些潛在的問題。
        Valve Disadvantages: Like all diaphragm valves, tied-diaphragm valves can be difficult to properly close and require the same double closure techniques as are used with spring-loaded diaphragm valves. These valves can be damaged if significantly over torqued (> 20 ft-lbs) and should never be operated with wrenches or persuaders.
        閥門的缺點:象所有的隔膜閥一樣,束縛隔膜閥正確關閉比較困難,要求采用象彈簧隔膜閥一樣的二次關閉技術。如果太過分扭轉閥門(> 20 ft-lbs),會損壞這些閥門。禁止用扳手或強制性工具來操作閥門。
        Comments: Although these valves are the best available, they still require trained operators and good procedures to provide maximum benefit. Tied-diaphragm valves offer excellent performance potential for ultrahigh-integrity applications with corrosive, toxic, flammable, and mildly oxidizing gases. Like all cylinder valves, optimum performance requires knowledgeable operators and appropriate procedures.
        評論:盡管這些閥門是現有最好的,它們仍然要求經過訓練的操作員和良好的程序來發揮最大的作用。對于有腐蝕性、有毒、易燃和適度氧化性氣體的超高純度應用,束縛隔膜閥提供了卓越的表現潛力。象所有的鋼瓶閥門一樣,最佳的表現需要有知識的操作員和合適的程序。
        WARNING: Improper use of cylinder valves may result in serious injury!
        警告:不正確使用鋼瓶閥門會導致嚴重傷害!
        Basic Valve Rules
        基本的閥門規則
        ALWAYS
        總是
        ? open valves slowly to control pressures urges and heat of compression!
        慢慢打開閥門,以控制壓力負荷和壓縮熱。
        ? use the correct CGA connection for hook-up!
        連接時使用正確的CGA接頭。
        ? inspect the valve for damage and foreign materials before connecting it to your equipment!
        在把閥門連接到你的設備之前,檢查閥門是否有損傷或不相容材料。
        ? ensure when the cylinder is not in use, even when empty, that the valve is in the closed position with the outlet seal in place and the transport cap installed!
        當沒有使用鋼瓶時,甚至當鋼瓶空著的時候,確保閥門處在關閉位置,排氣口密封處在原位,安裝了運輸帽。
        ? consult your supplier if you have any questions regarding cylinder valves!
        如果你有任何關于鋼瓶閥門的問題,請教你的供應商。
        ? make packing nut adjustments with the valve outlet depressurized!
        在閥門排氣口減壓時,進行襯墊螺母調節。
        ? restrain cylinders!
        固定鋼瓶!
        When returning any cylinder, ensure that the cylinder valve is properly closed,
        any outlet seals are in place and properly tightened, and the transport cap is correctly installed.
        當任何鋼瓶返還時,確保鋼瓶閥門已經正確關閉,任何排氣口密封都在適當的位置而且正確上緊,運輸帽已經正確安裝。
        NEVER
        禁止
        ? tamper with pressure relief devices!
        堵塞減壓裝置!
        ? attempt to tighten or loosen the valve into or out of the cylinder!
        試圖上緊或放松鋼瓶閥門!
        ? use a damaged valve where integrity may have been affected!
        在完整性可能已經受到影響的地方使用損壞的閥門。
        ? continue to use a valve that operates abnormally, i.e., becomes noisy or progressively harder to operate!
        繼續使用運轉不正常的閥門,如有噪聲的或越來越難以操作的!
        ? use an automatic operator, adapter, wrenches, or other tools to obtain a mechanical advantage on hand-wheel-operated valves without consulting your supplier first!
        沒有首先同你的供應商商量就使用自動操作手、接頭、扳手或其它工具,來獲得在手輪操作閥門上的機械便利!
        ? lubricate valves or their connections!
        潤滑閥門或它們的接頭!
        ? drag, lift, or move a cylinder using the valve or the hand wheel as a handle!
        把閥門或手輪作為手柄來拉拽、提舉或移動鋼瓶!
        ? remove packing nuts on packed valves!
        去掉襯墊閥門上的襯墊螺母!
        ? adjust or tamper with retainer or bonnet nuts on diaphragm or pressure seal valves!調整或篡改膜閥或壓力密封閥上的固定器或閥帽螺母!
        ? use the cylinder valve to regulate flow or pressure!
        使用鋼瓶閥門來控制流速或壓力!
        ? move cylinders without the transport cap installed!
        沒有安裝運輸帽就移動鋼瓶!
        ? interchange transport caps between cylinders!
        在鋼瓶之間交換運輸帽!
        WARNING: Improper use of cylinder valves may result in serious injury!
        警告:不正確使用鋼瓶閥門會導致嚴重傷害!

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